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What Is Bulking and How To Do It

In the fitness world, bulking refers to a period of time when individuals consume more calories than they burn in order to gain weight, specifically muscle mass.

Caucasian woman looking up with her finger on her chin. She is thinking. There is a drawing of muscles flexing behind her head. The top of the photo reads What is "Bulking"?

The goal is to gain as much muscle as possible during this time period, with the understanding that some fat gain will also occur. In this article, we will discuss the concept of bulking in detail.

What is Bulking?

Bulking is a bodybuilding term used to describe the process of intentionally gaining weight, specifically muscle mass [1]. This period of time is characterized by a caloric surplus, meaning that individuals consume more calories than they burn. The excess calories are used to fuel muscle growth through strength training exercises.

How Does Bulking Work?

Bulking works by creating a caloric surplus, which means that individuals are consuming more calories than their body needs to maintain their current weight [2]. The excess calories are then used to build muscle through strength training exercises [3]. The goal is to gain as much muscle as possible during this time period [4], with the understanding that some fat gain will also occur [5].

Protein sources such as meat, nuts, eggs, and milk

Who Should Bulk?

Bulking is typically recommended for individuals who have a solid foundation of strength training and are looking to gain muscle mass. It is important to note that bulking is not recommended for individuals who are already overweight or have a high body fat percentage [6]. In these cases, it is recommended to focus on losing fat before starting a bulk.

How Long Should Bulking Last?

The length of a bulk will vary depending on the individual's goals and body type. Typically, a bulk will last anywhere from 4-6 months. It is important to note that during a bulk, some fat gain will occur along with muscle gain. After a bulk, it is recommended to enter a cutting phase to lose the excess fat and reveal the muscle gained during the bulk.

How to Bulk

In a bulk, you want to be increasing your muscle mass, but not fat. This is commonly known as a "lean bulk". To bulk effectively, individuals should focus on consuming a diet that is high in protein, moderate in carbohydrates, and low in fat. It is also important to lift weights regularly and progressively increase the weight lifted over time. The goal is to create a caloric surplus of 250-500 calories per day, which will result in gaining 0.5-1 pound of weight per week. The bulking process can be broken down into four main components: resistance training, nutrition, rest, and recovery.

Physically fit woman that is front squatting with a barbell. There is gym equipment behind her such as tires and a squat rack.

Resistance Training

Resistance training is the cornerstone of any bulking program. This involves weightlifting exercises that target the major muscle groups, such as the chest, back, legs, and arms. It is important to focus on compound exercises, such as squats, deadlifts, and bench press, as these exercises work multiple muscle groups at once, leading to maximum muscle growth.

Another key factor to achieve a successful bulk is to perform exercises slowly, with heavier weights, and with lower repetitions. This will increase the time your muscles endure under tension, and thus increase muscle mass. Aim to perform compound movement anywhere between 6-10 reps with heavy weight.


Proper nutrition is essential for successful bulking. A diet rich in protein, complex carbohydrates, and healthy fats is essential for muscle growth. Aim to consume at least 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight, as protein is essential for muscle repair and growth. Complex carbohydrates provide energy for workouts, while healthy fats support hormone production and overall health.

Rest and Recovery

Rest and recovery are often overlooked in the bulking process but are equally important. Adequate rest allows the body to repair and rebuild muscle tissue, while recovery ensures that the body is prepared for the next workout. Aim to get at least 7-8 hours of sleep per night, and take rest days as needed.

Tracking Progress

Tracking progress is an essential part of the bulking process. This can be done by tracking body weight, body fat percentage, and strength gains. Use a tracking app or journal to record your progress and adjust your program as needed. MyFitnessPal and Trainerizer are the most commonly used apps for tracking fitness progress.

Benefits of Bulking

The primary benefit of bulking is gaining muscle mass. By consuming a caloric surplus and lifting weights regularly, individuals can gain significant amounts of muscle mass. This can improve strength, athletic performance, and overall physical appearance [7]. Additionally, during a bulk, individuals may experience an increase in energy levels and improved mood.

Blond caucasian woman wearing a white sports bra and grey leggings and glasses. She is flexing her arms. The background is a dark gym with equipment such as a squat rack and cable machines.

Risks of Bulking

The primary risk of bulking is gaining excess fat along with muscle mass. It is important to monitor weight gain during a bulk to ensure that excess fat gain is minimized. Additionally, some individuals may experience negative side effects such as increased acne, digestive issues, and decreased insulin sensitivity.


Bulking is a popular technique used in bodybuilding to gain muscle mass. It involves consuming a caloric surplus and lifting weights regularly. While there are risks associated with bulking, such as gaining excess fat, it can also lead to significant muscle gain and improved physical performance. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before beginning a bulking program to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual needs.

Here are some additional sources you can turn to in order to learn more information on bulking:

  1. "The Beginner's Guide to Bulking Up" by Men's Health - This article provides a comprehensive overview of bulking, including tips on how to calculate caloric intake and set up a bulking diet plan.

  2. "The Science of Bulking: How to Gain Muscle Without Fat" by Muscle & Fitness - This article provides an in-depth look at the science behind bulking, including the importance of macronutrient ratios, protein timing, and progressive overload training.

  3. "Bulking: A Complete Guide" by Healthline - This article provides a step-by-step guide on how to bulk, including tips on tracking progress, adjusting macronutrient ratios, and staying motivated.

  4. "The Ultimate Guide to Bulking" by - This comprehensive guide covers everything from the benefits of bulking to the most effective exercises and training strategies.

  5. "The Pros and Cons of Bulking and Cutting" by Precision Nutrition - This article provides a balanced look at the pros and cons of bulking, including the potential risks associated with gaining excess fat.

  6. "How to Bulk: The Ultimate Guide" by Stronger By Science - This article provides a detailed overview of the bulking process, including tips on setting up a bulking diet, tracking progress, and avoiding common mistakes.


1. Is bulking necessary for gaining muscle mass?

Bulking is not necessary for gaining muscle mass, but it can be an effective technique for individuals who are looking to gain muscle quickly.

2. Can women bulk?

Yes, women can bulk just like men. However, the approach may differ due to differences in hormones and body composition. Women may need to adjust their caloric intake and weightlifting routine accordingly.

3. Is bulking unhealthy?

Bulking can be healthy if done correctly and under the supervision of a healthcare professional. However, gaining excess fat during a bulk can lead to health problems such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

4. How do I know if I'm gaining muscle or fat during a bulk?

It can be difficult to determine whether you're gaining muscle or fat during a bulk, but tracking your weight and body composition can help. If you're gaining weight at a steady rate and your body fat percentage is not increasing significantly, you're likely gaining mostly muscle.

5. Can I bulk and cut at the same time?

While it's possible to gain muscle and lose fat simultaneously, it's not recommended for beginners. It's better to focus on one goal at a time, either bulking or cutting, for optimal results.


  1. Helms, E. R., Aragon, A. A., & Fitschen, P. J. (2014). Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 20.

  2. Lemon, P. W. (1998). Effects of exercise on dietary protein requirements. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8(4), 426-447.

  3. Schoenfeld, B. J., Aragon, A. A., & Krieger, J. W. (2013). The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 53.

  4. Phillips, S. M., & Van Loon, L. J. (2011). Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to metabolic advantage. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 36(6), 585-597.

  5. Campbell, B., Kreider, R. B., Ziegenfuss, T., La Bounty, P., Roberts, M., Burke, D., ... & Antonio, J. (2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 8.

  6. (2022). The Complete Guide To Bulking. Retrieved from

  7. American Council on Exercise. (2022). Bulking Up and Gaining Muscle. Retrieved from

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